Sunday, March 2, 2014

How to enable "Developer Options" menu in Android JellyBean and KitKat

"Android Development" is one of the option by Android operating system which allows the user to do development activities using his Android smartphone. This feature allows the developer to access the android device from computer by the help of Android Debug Bridge(ADB).
In older versions of Android the "Developer options" sub menu, by default was accessible from "Menu > Setting > Developer options". However from JellyBean 4.2 onward this sub menu disappeared. In the other words Android hide this sub menu.
To activate "Developer options" menu in JellyBean or KitKat  you need to do following steps:

  1. Goto "Menu"
  2. Goto "Settings"
  3. Goto "About the phone"
  4. Find the "Build number" (Probably it's in bottom of the screen. The last item!)
  5. The "Build number" option might be in another submenu, and this vary depends on the device brand however you can find it in one of the sub menus under the "About the phone".
  6. Tap few times on "Build number"
  7. Now it should shows a toast "You are now a developer!"
Enabling Android Developer menu
Android Developer menu activated
Now the "Developer options" menu must appeared in "Settings" menu. Just go one level back and you should see it in the bottom of screen.

Sunday, January 26, 2014

Clevo P570WM / Sager NP9570 Notebook Review & Performance Test

Sager is a brand name for a company which does high performance notebook customization. In the other words, you can order a notebook with fully customized parts. All the products of this company are high performance which mostly used for gaming and graphic design purposes. The Intel X79 express chipset allows this notebook to work with desktop CPU. Moreover it can support quad channel memory. The desktop CPU supporting feature is unique between all notebooks around the world which allows the owner to replace the CPU with a new model of desktop CPU.
This model is capable to upgrade to 3D screen, because the LCD support 120HZ refresh rate. Another feature is "Sleep and charge" which let it to have power on USB ports while its off.

This notebook customized with following options:
Intel® X79 Express Chipset

Intel® Core™ i7-4930K, 3.4-3.9GHz (22nm, 12MB L3 smart cache - 6 cores / 12 threads)

4x4GB SODIMMS (16GB 1600MHz Ram) Quad Channel

SLI (2x) - NVIDIA® GeForce™ GTX 770M (6.0GB total) GDDR5

2x Samsung 840Pro 256GB

WD 750GB 7200RPM


Built-in Gigabit Ethernet LAN

Intel® Dual Band AC 7260 802.11 A/AC/B/G/N 2.4/5.0GHz + Bluetooth™ 4.0

Thermal Compound
IC Diamond Thermal Compound - CPU + GPU

17.3" FHD 120Hz (16:9) Anti-Glare Matte-Type 72% NTSC Color Gamut Screen (1920x1080)

Blu-ray reader

Built‐in High Definition Audio Sound System
THX® TruStudio Pro™
External 7.1CH audio output supported by headphone, microphone and Line‐in jacks
1 x Built-In Microphone
5 x Built-In Speakers
1 x Built-in Subwoofer
Sound Blaster Compatible

Built in 2.0 Megapixel Camera

Memory Card Reader
Internal 9-in-1 Card Reader (MMC/RSMMC/SD/Mini SD/SDHC/SDXC/MS/MS Pro/MS Duo)

Input/output Ports
1 x DVI-I Output Port
1 x HDMI 1.4a Output Port
1 x Display Port 1.2
2 x USB 3.0 Ports
2 x USB 2.0 Ports
1 x eSATA Port
1 x IEEE-1394b Fire Wire
1 x RJ45 LAN
1 x Headphone Jack
1 x Microphone Jack
1 x Line-in Jack
1 x S/PDIF Output Jack
1 x ExpressCard 54/34 Slot

Extra Feature
Built-in 2.0M Digital Video  |  Kensington® Lock  |  Fingerprint Reader

8 Cells - Smart Lithium-Ion Battery Pack (78.44WH)

16.50" (w) x 11.30" (d) x 2.20-2.40" (h)

5.5 KG including battery

The following pictures are the results of test that done using CPU-Z tool. The pictures show the CPU, Cache, Main board, Memory, and GPU performance.

Saturday, December 21, 2013

Adding Custom Contact Form to WordPress

First of everything I am very sorry that I didn't update the website for a long time. I was really busy with my academic researches. Now  I am more free and try to update the website more regularly.

Today post is regarding adding a custom contact form to wordpress blog script. Sooner one of my customers ask me that we need a website on core of wordpress and moreover we need a custom form which should email the details of the form, when the submit button pressed.

For adding a custom form which be able to email the form data to a specific recipient (webmaster), we have to do the following steps:

  1. First I suggest to do this experiment in your local host, after a successful result you can apply it to your host. 
  2. Go to your current template path. In my case it is : "\wp-content\themes\twentythirteen".
  3. Make a new PHP file and rename it to "custom-form.php".
  4. Create a folder and rename it to "form-files".

Monday, August 26, 2013 1st Birthday

Today 26. August is the first birthday of website. Even during this past year I was busy with my studies , but I try my best to maintain the website with good content and answer visitors.
I would like to say THANK YOU to all fans which support root25 during this past year.
Lately I start a new track in the website and its "free online information security classes" which already started on 5th of August. These classes started from beginner level and will continue to professional security and penetration classes. I try to post valuable and unique content which help us improve the traffic of website as well.  I hope you will be happy with the site and support us by sharing and spreading the name of "".
Now I would like to share some statistic related to root25 for our dear fans and followers. 

root25 Google + profile got 1,186 followers.
root25 Twitter profile got 1,185 followers.
root25 Facebook profile got 774 fans.
root25 Stumbleupon profile got 129 followers. visitors Visitors visitors map overlay Visitors map overlay. visitors countries Visitors countries visitors browser technology Visitors browser technology

Friday, August 16, 2013

Lesson 004- Domain Name Service (DNS) & DNS Security

In previous lesson we discussed about IP addresses. Remembering the IP addresses is difficult. It's not easy to remember all IP addresses that we need for our daily use. Domain name service (DNS) allows us to use "easy to remember" names instead of memorizing IP addresses. For instance instead of remembering we can use 
DNS is like a phone book for the Internet. There is a name for each website and instead of a phone number there is an IP address exist for each website. DNS uses a distributed database system where each organisation is responsible to maintain data for their own domain. 
DNS has a hierarchical nature. There are root DNS server which provide high level information for individual DNS server to tell them what server is responsible for all .net domains or what server is responsible for all .com domains. Similar servers exists for each top level domains ( .com , .net , .org). Each of these servers then distribute authoritative for specific domains to the name servers  run by the organisations that owns the domain or their Internet Service Provider (ISP) . for instance runs its owns DNS servers. Yahoo DNS servers will have all information about yahoo sub domains such as or

Each organisation might use a relative extension after its domains. For example MIT is an educational institute which use .edu extension at its own domain ( ) you can find a more detailed list of top level domain list at ICANN .
When a DNS server receive a request from a client on its network from a domain which its not authoritative for , It has two options: (A) Check the DNS cache. (B) Perform a hierarchical look up.
Each DNS server keep a cache of recently looked up domains. For better understanding I will give you an example. For example you are on the aol network and you try to access website. So first you need to enter in the web browser. then your computer will look up in the local DNS server. DNS server of your company runs by so its not authoritative for domain. However the DNS server might recently ask the same question from another DNS server for another user which trying to access the same website. So the first place it will look up is the cache (memory) to see if it has the answer. If it didn't find the answer in the cache, it will go to perform a hierarchical look up. 
hierarchical look up check with the root server to find the responsible DNS server for the ".com" domains. then it will contact one of those .com domain servers and ask which server is responsible for Afterward it will contact that name server to find the specific IP address for .

There are some security threats related to DNS such as:

Saturday, August 10, 2013

Lesson 003- Network Ports

As we learned in the previous lesson, IP addresses uniquely identify computers. Most of the times each computer has more than one services. For instance a computer can be a web server and a file server in the same time. For addressing this in addition to having a unique IP address we have a unique PORT for each service on a computer. 
Ports are used by transport protocol to uniquely identify different services and applications. Ports are like doors to a computer services, each port can point to one of services on the computer. The idea of "Port" first introduced by ARPANET, but in that time it was known as "Socket number".
The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) created standards for using port numbers. Without knowledge of these ports user needs to ask the administrator about the details of port configuration. Using these standards are not compulsory. We can categories ports in two types:

  • Well known ports : are ports between 0 to 1024 which are assigned by IANA for special purposes.
    Some of these well known ports are:
    20/21  FTP
    22       SSH
    23       TELNET
    25       SMTP
    53       DNS
    80       HTTP
    443     HTTPS
    (For the complete list please refer here)

  • High number ports : are ports between 1025 to 65535 which are available for other services.
The important fact that we need to remember is that each transfer protocol has it's own ports. For instance a port number on UDP is different from the same port number on the TCP protocol. For easing the differentiate process of these ports we always bring the protocol type after them. 
For example : 22/udp or 22/tcp

Wednesday, August 7, 2013

Lesson 002- TCP IP Networking Basics

Visualization of routing path in internet (Opte Project)
Basically computers are connected to each other through networks, we can divide the networks into two main categories of :

  • LAN (Local Area Networks) : LAN networks used for connecting computers in limited areas such as an office, a building or schools.
  • WAN (Wide Area Networks) : WAN networks connect LAN networks to each other. The most obvious example of these networks are Internet.
Networks other than having benefits of ease in connectivity and sharing data, they also have some security risks as well. These security risks derive from the fact, which you open a pathway from your computer to outside world. Therefore security professionals have to have a good understanding of networks and network protocols used to protect Confidentiality, Integrity, Availability of information in computer networks. 
TCP/IP is the most common standard for networking. TCP/IP protocols suit consist of four main protocols such as:
  • Internet Protocol (IP) : IP protocol is responsible for delivering packets from the source computer to the destination computer based on the IP addresses in  the packets headers. IP also break the data to smaller packages known as "Packet" for sending them over the network. The whole Internet network relay on the IP addresses. IP has two version. Version 4 which established in 1981 and still is in use but later because engineers felt there will be more demand for address spaces they introduce IP version 6 in 1998. But still IP V6 is not very adopted and its due to the fact that IP V4 and IP V6 are not compatible.

  • Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) :  TCP protocol is responsible for providing a reliable and guarantied packet delivery between computers. TCP protocol uses a "three way hand shake process" for establishing the connection between the computers. In this process the client send a "Synchronized packet (SYN)" to the server which want to connect to. Afterward the server will receive this package and in respond sends a "Synchronized/Acknowledge packet (SYN/ACK)". ACK packet is showing that, server received the packet successfully and the SYN packet is for establishing a connection to the client side. In the last step when client received the SYN will send an ACK packet to the server to finalize and establish the connection.

  • User Datagram Protocol (UDP) : UDP also like the TCP used for sending Datagrams (messages), the only different is that this method is not reliable because there is no hand shake exist for making the connection. Mostly UDP used in cases which guarantied delivery is not necessary.

  • Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) : ICMP protocol used by computers and systems in the networks to manage and control the fellow of data on the network. When there is a traffic problem in the network ICMP messages used to inform computers or routers. They also used when the destination unreachable.
At the end , if you are interested to know your public IP address you just need to search word "IP" in the Google search engine. You can also refer to IP2Location website which can show more information based on your IP address. In this website you can check the country, city and the ISP name of any IP address.

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